Herbal Substitutions                    


                                    Here are four of the most commonly used substitutions


                                    * Rosemary can be used in place of any other herb

                                    * Rose can be used in place of any flower

                                    * Frankincense or Copal can be used in place of any Gum Resin

                                    * Sage can substitute for any mint.

                                    * Tobacco can be used in place of any poisonous herb


                                    ACACIA - Gum Arabic

                                    ACACIA GUM - Gum Arabic

                                    ACONITE - Tobacco

                                    ARABIC, GUM - Frankincense; Gum Mastic; Gum Tragacanth

                                    (for binding wet ingredients, not for incense use)

                                    AMBERGRIS - Artificial Ambergris, Cypress Oil with a few drops of Patchouli Oil

                                    AMMONIAC, GUM - Asafoetida

                                    ASAFOETIDA -Tobacco; Valerian

                                    BALM OF GILEAD - Rose buds; Gum Mastic

                                    BDELLIUM GUM - Copal, Pine Resin, Dragon's Blood

                                    BELLADONNA - Tobacco

                                    BENZOIN - Gum Arabic; Gum Mastic

                                    CACHANA - Angelica root

                                    CAMPHOR OIL - Eucalyptus oil; Lavender oil

                                    CARNATION - Rose petals anointed with a few drops Clove oil

                                    CASSIA - Cinnamon

                                    CASTOR BEAN - A few drops Castor oil

                                    CEDAR - Sandalwood

                                    CINQUEFOIL - Clover; Trefoil

                                    CINTRON - Equal parts Orange peel and Lemon peel

                                    CLOVE - Mace; Nutmeg

                                    CLOVER - Cinquefoil

                                    COPAL - Frankincense; Cedar

                                    COWBANE - Tobacco

                                    CYPRESS - Juniper; Pine needles

                                    DITTANY OF CRETE - Gum Mastic

                                    DRAGON'S BLOOD - Equal parts Frankincense and Red Sandalwood

                                    EUCALYPTUS OIL - Camphor oil; Lavender oil

                                    EUPHORBIUM - Tobacco

                                    FRANKINCENSE - Copal, Pine Resin

                                    GALANGAL - Ginger Root

                                    GRAINS OF PARADISE - Black Pepper

                                    GUM ACACIA - Gum Arabic

                                    GUM AMMONIAC - Asafoetida

                                    GUM ARABIC - Frankincense, Gum Mastic

                                    GUM BDELLUM - Copal, Pine Resin, Dragon's Blood

                                    HELLBORE - Tobacco, Nettle

                                    HEMLOCK - Tobacco

                                    HEMP - Nutmeg, Damiana, Star Anise, Bay

                                    HENBANE - Tobacco

                                    HYSSOP - Lavender

                                    IVY - Cinquefoil

                                    JASMINE - Rose

                                    JUNIPER - Pine

                                    LAVENDER - Rose

                                    LEMONGRASS - Lemon Peel

                                    LEMON PEEL - Lemongrass

                                    LEMON VERBENA - Lemongrass, Lemon Peel

                                    LODESTONE - A magnet or hematite

                                    MACE - Nutmeg

                                    MANDRAKE - Tobacco

                                    MASTIC GUM - Gum Arabic, Frankincense

                                    MISTLETOE - Mint, Sage

                                    MUGWORT - Wormwood

                                    NEROLI OIL - Orange Oil

                                    NIGHTSHADE - Tobacco

                                    NUTMEG - Mace, Cinnamon

                                    OAKMOSS - Patchouli

                                    ORANGE - Tangerine Peel

                                    ORANGE FLOWERS - Orange Peel

                                    PATCHOULI - Oakmoss

                                    PEPPERWORT - Rue, Grains Of Paradise, Black Pepper

                                    PINE - Juniper

                                    PINE RESIN - Frankincense, Copal

                                    RED SANDALWOOD - Sandalwood with a pinch of Dragon's Blood

                                    ROSE - Yarrow

                                    ROSE GERANIUM - Rose

                                    RUE - Rosemary with a pinch of Black Pepper

                                    SAFFRON - Orange Peel

                                    SANDALWOOD - Cedar

                                    SARSAPARILLA - Sassafras

                                    SASSAFRASS - Sarsaparilla

                                    SPEARMINT - Peppermint

                                    SULFUR - Tobacco, Club Moss, Asafoetida

                                    THYME - Rosemary

                                    TOBACCO - Bay

                                    TONKA BEAN - Deerstongue, Woodruff, Vanilla Bean, Coffee Bean

                                    VALERIAN - Asafoetida

                                    VANILLA - Woodruff, Deerstongue, Tonka Bean

                                    VETIVERT - Calamus

                                    WOLFSBANE - Tobacco

                                    WOOD ALOE - Sandalwood sprinkled with Ambergris Oil

                                    WOODRUFF - Deerstongue, Vanilla

                                    WORMWOOD - Mugwort

                                    YARROW - Rose

                                    YEW - Tobacco